Game Consoles

Another pioneer computer game was developed in 1961, when MIT students Martin Graetz and Alan Kotok, with MIT student Steve Russell, developed Spacewar! on a PDP-1 mainframe computer used for statistical calculations. The faster graphics accelerators and improving CPU technology resulted in increasing levels of realism in computer games. There were also several other companies that produced early first-person shooters, such as Arsys Software's Star Cruiser,[23] which featured fully 3D polygonal graphics in 1988,[24] and Accolade's Day of the Viper in 1989. From the mid-90s onwards, PC games lost mass-market traction to console games before enjoying a resurgence in the mid-2000s through digital distribution.[1][2] The uncoordinated nature of the PC game market and its lack of physical media make precisely assessing its size difficult. These cards allowed IBM PC compatible computers to produce complex sounds using FM synthesis, where they had previously been limited to simple tones and beeps.

By 1989 Computer Gaming World reported that "the industry is moving toward heavy use of VGA graphics".[20] While some games were advertised with VGA support at the start of the year, they usually supported EGA graphics through VGA cards. Their defining characteristics include a lack of any centralized controlling authority, a greater degree of user control over the video-gaming hardware and software used and a generally greater capacity in input, processing, and output. By 1988, the enormous popularity of the Nintendo Entertainment System had greatly affected the computer-game industry.

By 1993 PC games required much more memory than other software, often consuming all of conventional memory, while peripheral device drivers could go into upper memory with DOS memory managers. OXO, an adaptation of tic-tac-toe for the EDSAC, debuted in 1952. Although personal computers only became popular with the development of the microprocessor and microcomputer, computer gaming on mainframes and minicomputers had previously already existed. These publications provided game code that could be typed into a computer and played, encouraging readers to submit their own software to competitions.[5] Microchess was one of the first games for microcomputers which was sold to the public. PC gaming currently tends strongly toward improvements in 3D graphics.. A Mindscape executive agreed, saying that "Unfortunately, its effect has been extremely negative. Home computer games became popular following the video game crash of 1983, particularly in Europe, leading to the era of the "bedroom coder". These publications provided game code that could be typed into a computer and played, encouraging readers to submit their own software to competitions.[5] Microchess was one of the first games for microcomputers which was sold to the public. These publications provided game code that could be typed into a computer and played, encouraging readers to submit their own software to competitions.[5] Microchess was one of the first games for microcomputers which was sold to the public.